Leaving Laodicea
457 - The Prophetic Implications of COVID-19

457 - The Prophetic Implications of COVID-19

May 5, 2020

Right now, we as a nation and as the church are in the midst of an unprecedented worldwide pandemic that has some unfortunate, unforeseen circumstances.  We are currently mandated by our government to stay at home and practice social distancing.  Which, in effect, means no corporate church services.  No normal business activities.  No hugging our grandchildren or shaking hands with a friend.  No picnics at the park, no day trips to the mountains, no shopping at the mall, no having friends over for dinner.  All of that has changed.

But so has our culture.  Our economy is in a free-fall.  Unemployment claims are greater, much greater, than in the time of the great depression.  Small businesses are closing at a rate unseen in our lifetime and the future looks dim, at best.  Liquor stores and abortion clinics are deemed essential, but churches are not.  And since lawlessness has increased greatly, "the love of many," as Jesus foretold, "has grown cold" (Matt. 24:12).

These are truly desperate times.

But could God be trying to tell us something by all that is happening around us?  Is He trying to get a message to us, a warning?  And, if so, what is that message and why are we as a people so obstinate and hard of hearing?

We know, from Scripture, that God warns His people primarily in two ways.  One, by sending them a prophet, a prophetic voice in their generation to proclaim the words of the Lord.  God often sent a Jeremiah, Ezekiel, or John the Baptist to bring His people back to repentance before He chastised them for their sins.  Unfortunately, because of our collective pride, we in the West are not particularly open to a modern-day Isaiah or a proclamation of "Thus says the Lord!" from anyone.

So often God warns His people the second way, by a remedial judgment.  He allows storms, plagues, war, famine, or pestilence to bring us to our knees and allows us to realize that God is God and we are not.  God often humbles us by showing us how much we are not in control.

Could that be what is happening right now?  And, if so, what warning are we failing to heed?  And what changes do we need to make in our lives right now?

Remember, God is sovereign.  That doesn't mean He is the cause of suffering and death.  No, our sin brought that upon us.  That blood is on our own hands.  But what it does mean is that nothing happens in our lives, good or bad, without His permission.  Why?  Because He is sovereign.  He is good and gracious and holy, but foremost, He is sovereign.


The Blessings and the Curses

In Deuteronomy, we find a list of promises God gave to Israel that also applies to each of us today, as individuals and as a nation (and church).  They are found in Deuteronomy 28.  In this chapter, God gives His people one grand if/then promise.  If they will "diligently obey the voice of the Lord your God, (how) to observe carefully all His commandments" (Deut. 28:1), then an incredible, breathtaking list of blessings will follow.  In fact, the Lord says "all these blessings shall come upon you and overtake (overwhelm) you, (why) because you obey the voice of the Lord your God" (Deut. 28:2).  Did you catch that?  His blessings will literally overtake them (you can't outrun the blessings of God), and literally overwhelm them.

Would you like to be blessed like that?  Then read the rest of the if conditions in Deuteronomy 28:3-14.

But there is a dark side.  It is the consequence of not meeting God's if/then standard.  He says:

"But it shall come to pass, if you do not obey the voice of the LORD your God, to observe carefully all His commandments and His statutes which I command you today, that all these curses will come upon you and overtake you" (Deut. 28:15).

And as wonderful as the blessings are, the curses are much worse.  Much!  And we are seeing many of them manifest right before our eyes.

If you are wondering what you and your church can do to prepare your hearts for God's possible remedial judgments, keep listening.  For our days ahead may be dark indeed.

The following is a study on the Prophetic Implications of the Covid 19 virus and Deuteronomy 28.

450 - How to Prepare for the Coming Apostasy

450 - How to Prepare for the Coming Apostasy

February 19, 2020

When we have the discernment that Jesus spoke about to know the "signs of the times" (Matt. 16:3), it becomes clear we are living in the last days.  In fact, there are several key signs that bring us to this conclusion.

  1. The regathering of Israel into their own land
  2. The surging apostasy
  3. The coming Middle East peace
  4. The reuniting of the Roman Empire (East, West, both?)
  5. Globalism

For the church today, the most important of these prophetic signs is the rising tide of apostasy or defection from God and the Christian faith.  We see this happening almost daily within the ranks of the church.  As we have already discussed, apostasy means to "depart, revolt, or forsake.  It is a deliberate defection from a formerly held religious position."  Apostasy doesn't necessarily mean a total rejection of God or the authority of His Scripture.  Apostasy can come in stages.  It usually begins with a defection from a section of Scripture or a specific teaching that is incompatible with the current cultural church mood.  Some examples are the issue of homosexuality, divorce, women pastors, abortion, or a myriad of other issues that divide the Body today.  And once a small defection takes place, full-blown apostasy is not far behind.

But this shouldn't surprise us.  After all, Jesus said in Matthew 24 the greatest sign of His return was deception.  And He warned His disciples about that deception four times (Matt. 24:4, 5,11, 24).  He even went so far as to say the deception at the end would be so great that, if it was possible, even the elect would be deceived (Matt. 24:24).  And the elect includes Peter, Paul, James and John, Martin Luther, D.L. Moody, Spurgeon, Billy Graham, and you and me.  That's a sobering thought that should not be taken lightly.

So what can we do to prepare for the coming apostasy?


The Apostasy is Coming

Or, how do we prevent falling prey to the deception that will only get greater as the Day approaches?  Great question.  You must know what you believe, and why.  You must personally experience God for who He is.  You cannot ride on the coattails of another’s faith.  Your faith must be your own.  And you must understand how overwhelmingly powerful the deception will be in the end times and be prepared.

Ask yourself the following questions: Has God ever revealed Himself to you in an unmistakable fashion that left no doubt?  Has He ever revealed Himself to you through His Word?  If so, what was that experience like?  How did it change your view of Scripture?  Do you hunger for more of Him?  Has that hunger led you to read more of His Word?  And if not, why?

Once you begin to understand the power of His Word and the wisdom He gives you through His Word, what the world offers is nothing more than pocket change.  You, through Him, have more wisdom than the talking heads on CNN.  You have more understanding than those who make acceptance speeches at the Academy Awards and spend that time telling you how to live.  You are the dwelling place of God Himself, in the Person of the Holy Spirit, which makes you a living sanctuary of the Presence of God.

Tell me what the world has that you don't.  Exactly.  Nuthin'!

The following is a study on How to Prepare for the Coming Apostasy and 1 Corinthians 2.

449 - The Limitations of Apologetics

449 - The Limitations of Apologetics

February 18, 2020

As the Scriptures claim, one of the greatest signs of the end is the mass defection or apostasy from the Christian faith by those who once claimed to be believers.  Paul, in his letter to Timothy, warns that the "Spirit expressly says that (when) in latter times (who) some (what) will depart from the faith, (how) giving heed to deceiving spirits and doctrines of demons" (1 Timothy 4:1).  This great apostasy is characterized by a rebellion or revolt against God and His Word.  And it is promoted by those who once claimed Jesus as Lord but are now "giving heed to deceiving spirits and doctrines of demons."  Peter says "scoffers will come in the last days" (2 Peter 3:3-4).  Jude calls them "mockers" (Jude 17-19).

So what are we to do in the face of this great apostasy?  How do we answer skeptics when they demand we "prove our God exists?"  How do we defend our faith in the unseen God?  What are we to do?  Historically, the answer has been to study up on apologetics and be prepared to go toe to toe with those who demand answers from us void of faith.  But is that the real purpose of apologetics?  I'm not so sure.

For the message (or, preaching) of the cross is foolishness (mōría - folly, absurdity, moronic, stupid, senseless, foolhardy, insane) to (who) those who are perishing (or, being destroyed completely, to render void), but to (who) us who are being saved (to deliver, make whole, preserve safe from danger, loss, or destruction) it (the message of the cross) is the power (dúnamis) of God - 1 Corinthians 1:18.

Our faith in the cross of Christ is moronic to those who are perishing.  Period.  And apologetics won't change that fact.  Think about it, our God doesn't need defending.  He can take care of Himself.  And you cannot lead someone to Christ by logically answering all their questions about faith and the Scriptures to their satisfaction.  Why?  Because faith in Him is a gift from God and, before God imparts faith to the individual, the lost are incapable of believing the Gospel.  To them, our faith in the cross of Christ is moronic.

So, is apologetics important?  Absolutely.  But not necessarily in the way you think.


Apologetics

The purpose of apologetics is for you to have all your questions answered about God and salvation and to allow your faith to grow strong.  It is not for the direct benefit of the lost.  This is what 1 Corinthians 1 and 2 shows in graphic detail.  It has always been God's plan to thwart man's wisdom by revealing Himself through something man considers foolish.  He does this to bring to nothing the wisdom of this world and, in turn, exalt faith in Him as the key that opens the door of salvation.  Consider the following from 1 Corinthians 1:21-22:

Question:  Where is the wise (or, respected, learned philosophers and experts)?
Question:  Where is the scribe (or, writers, scholars)?
Question:  Where is the disputer (or, debater, reasoner, influencer) of this age?
Question:  Has not (who) God made (what) foolish the wisdom of this world (kósmos)
Answer:  Absolutely!

But why?

For since, in the (what) wisdom of God, the world through (its) wisdom did not know (ginōskō - or choose to know) God, it pleased God through the foolishness of the message preached (foolishness to those who are perishing) to save those who believe (faith).

The reason for apologetics is for you to be secure in your faith and not necessarily to convince someone by the power of your arguments to receive Christ.  That is a sovereign act of God alone.  And prior to the impartation of faith in the elect, our most important argument is foolishness (stupid, ridiculous, moronic, insane) to those who are perishing.  Jesus never gave signs for others to believe in Him. So let me ask you just a few questions about your belief vs. God's wisdom.

  • Do you believe in the creation account in Genesis?
  • Do you believe in the virgin birth?
  • Do you believe in the floating ax head?
  • Do you believe in the lion’s den or the fiery furnace?
  • Do you believe in the fall of Jericho?
  • Do you believe a good God sometimes does things that don’t seem so good to us today?
  • Do you believe God rewards faith and punishes unbelief?

Are there parts of His Word that you don’t believe?  If so, you are on very dangerous ground.  Why?  Because Jesus said the deception in the last days would be so great that, if it was possible, even the elect would be deceived (Matt. 24:24).  And that includes you and me.

As we see the day of His return approaching, it is vital to know what we believe to be true.  For help in securing your belief against apostasy, keep listening.

The following is a study on the Limitations of Apologetics as found in 1 Corinthians 1:18-31.

448 - Narcissism:  The Ultimate End Time Personality Disorder

448 - Narcissism: The Ultimate End Time Personality Disorder

February 15, 2020

Jesus chastised the religious elite of His day for their confidence in predicting things like the weather, but not being able to discern the signs of the times.  In fact, He called them hypocrites.  Remember?  "When it is evening you say, 'It will be fair weather, for the sky is red'; and in the morning, 'It will be foul weather today, for the sky is red and threatening.'  Hypocrites!  You know how to discern the face of the sky, but you cannot discern the signs of the times" - Matthew 16:2-3.  I wonder if He would say the same about His church today?  After all, it appears we all seem to know everything about everything.  Just ask us.

It seems we resemble those that Isaiah was called to address.

Woe to those who call evil good, and good evil; who put darkness for light, and light for darkness; who put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!  Woe to those who are wise in their own eyes and prudent in their own sight - Isaiah 5:20-21.

But there is one prophetic statement of Jesus regarding the times before us that is hard for many, including me, to understand.  That is until today.  Jesus said "because lawlessness will abound, the love of many will grow cold" (Matt. 24:12).  Got that.  He also promised that "a man's enemies will be those of his own household" (Matt. 10:36).  How is that possible?  How can our love for our spouse or children grow so cold we will treat them as enemies to the extent of hatred and betrayal? (Matt. 24:10).  How can that be true?  What sort of perverted human would turn on his own family for the sake of himself?  What kind of depraved mind or personality disorder would produce sociopaths with a love this cold?

In a word, it's called narcissism.  And it is the ultimate end-time personality disorder.


Narcissism

In general, narcissism or narcissistic traits can be described as follows:

  • They have an exaggerated sense of self-importance.
  • They have a sense of entitlement and require constant, excessive admiration.
  • They expect and demand to be recognized as superior even without achievements that warrant it.
  • They exaggerate their achievements and talents.
  • They are preoccupied with fantasies about success, power, brilliance, beauty or the perfect mate.
  • They believe they are superior and can only associate with equally special people.'
  • They monopolize conversations and belittle or look down on people they perceive as inferior (which is just about everyone).
  • They expect and demand special favors and unquestioning compliance with their expectations.
  • They habitually take advantage of others to get what they want.
  • They have an inability or unwillingness to recognize the needs and feelings of others.
  • They are envious of others and believe others envy them.
  • They behave in an arrogant or haughty manner, coming across as conceited, boastful and pretentious.
  • They Insist on having the best of everything because they are entitled.

And they are everywhere!  They multiply like kudzu.

Narcissism may very well be the ultimate personality disorder of the end-times.  And it certainly fits the Laodicean church model.  In fact, psychologists believe that in the last 15 years over 30% of our population now registers on the narcissism spectrum.  And that number grows daily.

So what are we to do?  Great question.  Keep listening to find out more.

The following is a study on Narcissism and the End Times.

435 - How to Become a Faith Prepper

435 - How to Become a Faith Prepper

October 31, 2019

There comes a time in each of our lives when we have to ask ourselves some tough questions, especially as we see the coming darkness growing over our land and the church.  And for many, that day of self-examination and questioning is today.  Consider the following:

What are we to do when we see the darkness rapidly encroaching on everything we hold dear?
How do we raise our children in this deeply divided and hostile environment?
How are we to remain light in the coming darkness?
Where do we find our strength for the journey?
Where can we go for our encouragement and motivation to stand strong, come what may?
What is going to happen to all we know and love if things keep getting darker?
How can we become, today, the believers we need to be, seeing all the chaos around us?

The answer is simple.  It is now time to put everything aside and begin to prepare for what lies ahead.  No more denial or sticking our heads in the sand.  It is now time to become a faith prepper.


It's Time to Become a Faith Prepper

A faith prepper, like any prepper, is one who sees the danger ahead and sacrifices today for tomorrow in order to secure the safety and well being of those he loves.  After all, Noah built the ark before it started to rain.

Consider these two people who both saw the danger, yet only one did anything about it.  Which are you?

A prudent man foresees evil and hides himself, but the simple pass on and are punished - Proverbs 22:3.

Just a few more questions.

How can we, as individual believers and as a church, work, and sacrifice to become a faith prepper?
What is the shortest distance between where we are spiritually and where we need to be?
What is the key to intimacy with the Lord?
And what is the one area in our spiritual lives that is most lacking?
Answer:  Prayer.

That's right, the first step to becoming a faith prepper is understanding the importance of prayer.  And we will begin to do that with a 21 Day Prayer Challenge to "Pray Before Anything". The following is a study on Prayer and becoming a Faith Prepper.

432 - The Importance of Trust in Dark Times

432 - The Importance of Trust in Dark Times

September 24, 2019

The expectation for our future, as a Nation and as the church, are grim indeed.  We are going to face some very tough times, and have to navigate some very rough waters, especially for those of us who live in the United States.

During the Tribulation, the Bible teaches that Israel will stand alone.  No longer will we be her protector.  God will fill that role.  In fact, the US is not even a minor player in the end times scenario.  Look at Ezekiel 38 and 39 if you need convincing.  The prophetic future of the US is almost non-existent.  Something must happen to us to bring us down to the point we can no longer protect Israel.  Can you see it coming?

Just look around.


The Expectation

We are facing unprecedented times in America:

Our trade war with China, and soon the rest of the world.
The coming 2020 elections and all the chaos that will surely follow, regardless of who wins.
The overt attack on Christianity in the media.
The almost insane push of the homosexual agenda. Judicial tyranny at every level.
The widespread corruption in our honored institutions and the government.
Natural disasters run amok, earthquakes, drought, hurricanes, flooding, etc.
Societal breakdown.
Hatred among citizens.
The public talk of a Second Civil War.
Mass shootings and other acts of terror on almost a daily basis.
And it only gets worse.

Because of these, we will need to learn to lean more on the Lord than ever before.  Sunday School faith will no longer cut it.  Church, as we have known it in the West, will become more and more obsolete and irrelevant.  Your personal faith and trust in the Lord will rapidly become the most important thing in your life.  And it all hinges on one word:

Trust.


Trust During the Coming Darkness

The classic Old Testament teaching on trust is found in Proverbs 3:5-6.  There our Lord gives us a profound if/then promise, the very if/then promise we so desperately need as we see the darkness approaching.  Consider His words:

(if) Trust in the LORD with all your heart, (if) and lean not on your own understanding; (if) in all your ways acknowledge Him, (then) and He shall direct your paths.

As we look at this promise, we are compelled to ask ourselves a few questions about the joy of having the Lord directing our paths.

What would you give, especially when we see the coming darkness in our world growing stronger, to have the Lord of All direct your life?
What would it be worth to you to have the confidence to run to Him for shelter and refuge and to know you are welcome under His wings?
What confidence in dark days would that give you?

There is so much more here than just what we read on the surface.  To discover the meaning and implication of each word of this glorious if/then promise, and then to rest in His promise, you will need to keep listening.

The following is a study on the importance of trust as found in Proverbs 3:5-6.

429 - Signs of the End:  Deception

429 - Signs of the End: Deception

July 3, 2019

In this message, we begin a deep journey into the prophetic words of Christ found in Matthew 24.  Why?  Because we are truly living in the last of the last days and it would do us well to see what our Lord has to say about the events that precede His coming.  And we will especially look at the first sign Jesus told us would point to the beginning of the end, deception.  That's right, deception is planáō in the Greek and means "to cause to wander, to be led astray, to mislead, to seduce, to cause to err."  Or, simply put, good old-fashioned deception.

Which raises just a few questions.

How are we being deceived today?
And, if we are being deceived, how would we know?
Are there other places in the Scriptures that warn us against deception?
What kind of deception can we expect?
And what was the specific focus of the deception Jesus spoke about?


How Important is the Coming (and Present) Deception

To see how rampant deception is in our society, and as a sign of the end, look at how many times Jesus spoke about it in Matthew 24:

And Jesus answered and said to them: "Take heed that no one deceives you.  For many will come in My name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ and will deceive many." - Matthew 24:5.

"Then many false prophets will rise up and deceive many" - Matthew 24:11.

And how powerful will that deception be?

"For false christs and false prophets will rise and show great signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect" - Matthew 24:24.

Did you catch that?  If it were possible (and we know that it's not), even the elect, those chosen and sealed by Christ, would be deceived.  It's gonna be bad.


Who Do You Trust?

One final question regarding trust and deception.  Ask yourself this one question:  Who do you trust?  If you're honest, your answer may shock you.

Do you trust your government?
The media?  Hollywood?
Do you trust what you read in the news or on Facebook?
Do you trust what you are taught in school?
Do you trust our economic system in this country?
Do you trust the church?
The family?
Do you trust your friends or spouse?

There is so much more to talk about regarding deception.  To find out more, keep listening.

The following is a study on Matthew 24:1-4.

412 - Leaving Your First Love

412 - Leaving Your First Love

August 3, 2017

The first of Jesus' seven letters to the churches in the Revelation reveal more about each of us than we often care to admit.  The letter to Ephesus has this chilling assessment from the Lord:

“Nevertheless I have this against you, that you have left your first love" (Revelation 2:4).

Ouch.  In spite of this church standing firm against heresy and faithfully persevering under great trials, the Lord holds something against them.  He is hurt, angry, almost unforgiving.  He must feel rejected and forgotten.  Why?  Because the church in Ephesus, the early church, the church that still had members that knew the Lord personally had left and forsaken the very one they claimed to love.  He said, "Nevertheless I have this against you, (what) that you have left your first love."  And that first love was Jesus.

Do you remember what it was like when you first came to Christ?   Do you remember the joy, the exuberance, the passion and full commitment you felt towards Him?  Do you remember the promises you made in sheer gratitude for what He had done for you?  Do you remember any of this?

Now look at your life.  Are you still as passionate?  Are you still giddy in love with Him?  Are you closer to the Lord today than in any other time in your life?  If not, you've done more than simply plateaued.  You've left and forsaken your first love.  And in doing so, the Lord now has something "against" you.

If I were you, I'd not rest until I made this right with Him.  Do you know how?  If not, then keep listening.

The following is a study on Jesus' letter to the church at Ephesus, Revelation 2:1-7.

411 - We Will Not Be Equal in the Kingdom of God

411 - We Will Not Be Equal in the Kingdom of God

July 10, 2017

We will not all be equal in heaven.  Now we're not talking about salvation, but of rewards.  All of us are equal in regards to salvation because it is a gift given freely to those who believe.  In this, there is no question.  But what we do with our salvation is another matter.  And we will be rewarded for our faithfulness to Him in this life.  Consider the following:

1 Corinthians 3:11-15 - For no other foundation can anyone lay than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ.  Now if anyone builds on this foundation with (1) gold, silver, precious stones, (2) wood, hay, straw, each one’s (personal) work will become clear; (how) for the Day will declare it, (how) because it will be revealed by fire; and the fire will test each one’s (personal) work, of what sort it is. If anyone’s work which he has built on it endures (gold, silver, precious stones), he will receive a reward.  If anyone’s work is burned (wood, hay, straw), he will suffer loss (of reward); but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire.

Charles Stanley also spoke of this in his book, Eternal Security.  He said, “Some believers will be entrusted with certain privileges; others will not. Some will reign with Christ; others will not (2 Timothy 2:12). Some will be rich in the kingdom of God; others will be poor (Luke 12:21, 33).  Some will be given true riches; others will not.  Some will be given heavenly treasures of their own; others will not.  Some will rule and reign with Christ; others will not.  Privilege in the kingdom of God is determined by one’s faithfulness in this life.  It is true that there will be equality in terms of our inclusion in the kingdom of God, but not in our rank and privilege.”

Does this sound troubling to you?  Maybe confusing?  If so, keep listening to learn more.

The following is a study on the Judgment Seat of Christ and the Marriage Ceremony of the Lamb.

410 - Standing at the Judgment Seat of Christ

410 - Standing at the Judgment Seat of Christ

July 2, 2017

The Judgement Seat of Christ is the first of seven great judgments that will occur.  And for the believer, it's the most important.  Why?  Because at this judgment all church-age believers will appear before Christ to give an account of their lives for reward.  Or, in the case of many, no reward.  Consider the following:

2 Corinthians 5:10 - For we (Paul includes himself) must (not optional) all appear before the judgment seat (bḗma) of Christ, (why) that each one (personal and individual) may receive (review and reward) the things done in the body, (review) according to what he has done, (reward) whether good or bad.

These are some of the main areas that will be examined when we stand before the Lord:

  1. How we treat other believers (Matthew 10:41-42; Hebrews 6:10)
  2. How we employ our God-given talents and abilities (Matthew 25:14-29; Luke 19:11-26; 1 Corinthians 12:4, 7; 2 Timothy 1:6; 1 Peter 4:10)
  3. How we use our money (Matthew 6:1-4; 1 Timothy 6:17-19)
  4. How well we endure personal injustice and being mistreated (Matthew 5:11-12; Mark 10:29-30; Luke 6:27-28, 35; Romans 8:18; 2 Corinthians 4:17; 1 Peter 4:12-13)
  5. How we endure suffering and trials (James 1:12; Revelation 2:10)
  6. How we spend our time (Psalm 90:9-12; Ephesians 5:16; Colossians 4:5; 1 Peter 1:17)
  7. How we run the particular race God has given us (1 Corinthians 9:24; Philippians 2:16; 3:12-14; Hebrews 12:1)
  8. How effectively we control our fleshly appetites (1 Corinthians 9:25-27)
  9. How many souls we witness to and win for Christ (Daniel 12:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:19-20)
  10. How much the Rapture means to us and shapes our lives (2 Timothy 4:8)
  11. How faithful we are to God’s Word and God’s people (Acts 20:26-28; 2 Timothy 4:1-2; Hebrews 13:17; James 3:1; 1 Peter 5:1-2; 2 John 1:7-8)
  12. How hospitable we are to strangers (Matthew 25:35-36; Luke 14:12-14)
  13. How faithful we are in our vocations (Colossians 3:22-24)
  14. How we support others in ministry (Matthew 10:40-42)
  15. How we use our tongues (Matthew 12:36; James 3:1-12)

Are you ready to stand before the Lord and have your life judged by His standards?  Because it will happen. There is no escape.  And if not, what are you prepared to do about it?  What changes are you willing to make in this life to be rewarded for in the next?  But be warned, time is running out.

If you want to find out more about how to prepare yourself to face the Lord at the Judgment Seat of Christ, then keep listening.

The following is a study on the Judgment Seat of Christ.